Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2018, Page: 154-170
Geotechnical Considerations for the Design and Construction of Foundations in a Marshy Stream Channel of Iwochang - Ibeno, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria
Fidelis Ankwo Abija, Centre for Geomechanics, Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; Mcfaas Int'l Projects Ltd, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Songo Clifford Teme, Department of Geology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Ebiegberi Oborie, Department of Geology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 14, 2018;       Accepted: Oct. 4, 2018;       Published: Dec. 25, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.jccee.20180306.11      View  170      Downloads  68
Abstract
A pre-construction site investigation was carried out in a marshy stream channel and adjoining areas for a proposed building site to characterize the subsurface subgrades and recommend foundation design for which proposed structures include a 1-floor 39.7m x 33.7m hostel, a 20.5m x 10.0m 4-bedroom duplex and a 1- floor 2-bedroom block of flats measuring 28.2m x 11.5m with 1.5 factored design dead + live load data as 2700tons, 655tons and 1270 tons respectively. Field investigations include boring of 10 boreholes to a depth of 10m using auger and sounding of 6 cone penetration tests using a 2.5tons mechanical cone penetrometer. The results indicate a soft clay layer existing from ground surface to a depth varying from 1.0m – 1.1m in the stream channel and 0.60m – 0.70m on the adjoining land. These clays are extra-sensitive to sensitive high compressibility Kaolin clays (CH – OH, MH - OH) with undrained shear strength varying from 42 – 75.0KN/m2, angle of internal friction ranging from 0 - 30 with cone resistance values of 3.0 – 11.0 Kg/cm2. Swell potential ranges from 11.45 – 30.64%, swell index from 0.44 – 0.57, activity from 7.0 – 11.0 and swelling pressure 4.776KPa – 4.890KPa. Below this depth a harder clay layer occurs to a depth of between 4.5m – 5.2m and is proposed to found the structures. Pre-consolidation pressures determined from Oedometer test on undisturbed clay samples retrieved from the centre of the second clay layer varies from 125.0KPa – 162.5KPa and Overconsolidation ratios from 2.75 – 6.40 depicting overconsolidation while water table corrected bearing capacities indicates a favourable fully compensated depth of 1.2m for the building foundations. However excessive total settlement determined using Boussinesq’s average vertical stress ranges from 180.1cm - 211.1cm on adjoining land and 160 -111.9cm on the stream channel under the worst case scenario for the structures necessitating further depth compensation to 2.0m. This yielded a reduction in settlement varying from 8.0% to 9.9% on the stream channel and 16.7% - 18.4% on the adjoining land. Rate of settlement depicts that it will take 6.655 and 28.65 years after construction to achieve 50% and 90% settlement under the worst case scenario. Below these clays are loose to medium density sands of varying grain sizes. Load transfer to these sands through pile foundations was considered using the cone penetrometer as a load test to derive unit toe bearing capacities of piles which embedment depth of 11.0m was recommended.
Keywords
Building Load, Vertical Stress, Water Table, Bearing Capacities, Pile Tip Capacities, Total Settlement, Rate of Settlement
To cite this article
Fidelis Ankwo Abija, Songo Clifford Teme, Ebiegberi Oborie, Geotechnical Considerations for the Design and Construction of Foundations in a Marshy Stream Channel of Iwochang - Ibeno, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria, Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2018, pp. 154-170. doi: 10.11648/j.jccee.20180306.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Das, B. (1999). Principles of Foundation `Engineering, 4th edn. California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 862pp.
[2]
Murthy, V. N. S. (2012). Textbook of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributors PVt Ltd 1043pages.
[3]
Negerebara, O. D., Abam, T. K. S. and Kiri, N. (2014). Geotechnical sol characterization of Akanfa – Gbaran road, bayelsa State, Nigeria. Int. J. of Scientific and Research publications. Vol. 4, Issue, 4, pp. 1 – 16.
[4]
Tse, A. C. and Akpokodje, E. G. (2014). Geotechnical characteristics of mangrove swamps soils: Implications as foundation materials in parts of the eastern Niger Delta. J. of Mining and Geology, Vol. 50, No 1. Pp. 61 – 71.
[5]
Akpokodje, E. G. (1987). The Engineering Geological characteristics and classification of major superficial soils of the Niger Delta. Engineering Geology, Vol. 23, pp. 193 – 211.
[6]
Abam, T.K.S. and Okogbue, C. O. (1997). The cone penetration and soil characteristics in the Niger Delta. J. of Mining and Geology, Vol. 133 (1), pp.15 – 24.
[7]
Teme, S. C. (2002). Geotechnical considerations on foundation design in the Niger Delta., paper presented at the special technical session of the 39th Annual international conference of the NMGS in Port Harcourt., pp. 51.
[8]
Oghenero,E.A., Akpokodje, E.G and Tse A.C. (2014). Geotechnical properties of subsurface soils in Warri, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. J. of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 1. Pp. 89 – 102.
[9]
Youdeowei, P. O. and Nwankwoala. H. O (2012). Subsoil characteristics of sand deposits in the some parts of Bayelsa State.
[10]
Teme, S. C., Adu, A. and Olise, C. (2015). Design considerations in the construction of a basement in a 7-storey hospital complex in the marginal lands of the Niger Delta sub-region, Nigeria. A 51st NMGS conference paper, Lagos pp. 57.
[11]
Ibe A.C. (1996) The Niger Delta and Sea-Level Rise. In: Milliman J.D., Haq B.U. (eds) Sea-level rise and coastal subsidence. Coastal Systems and Continental Margins, Vol. 2. Springer, Dordrecht.
[12]
Adefolalu, D. O (1981). The weather and climate of Calabar: a study of coastal microclimatology in equatorial tropics. Senate Research Project, University of. Calabar.
[13]
Abija, F. A. (1996). Sedimentary geology of a mesotidal beach, SE Nigeria. Unpub. B.Sc. project report, Dept. of Geology, University of Calabar, Nigeria..62pp.
[14]
Etu-Efeotor, J. O. and Akpokodje, E. G. (1990). Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta. J. of Mining and Geology, 26, pp. 279 – 294.
[15]
Abam, T. K. S. (2016). Engineering Geology of the Niger Delta. J. of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, Vol.6, (3), 65-89.
[16]
Abija, F. A. and Abam, T. K. S. (2018). Application of geoaccumulation and pollution load indices in the assessment of heavy metal contamination in Forcados river sediments and adjoining soils, Western Niger Delta. J. of Geoscience and Environmental Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 35 – 51.
[17]
Offodile, M. E. (1991). An approach to groundwater study and development in Nigeria. Mecon Services Ltd Jos., Report.
[18]
Sowers, G. B. and Sowers, G. F. (1970). Introductory Soil Mechanics and Foundations, 3rd edn. New York: Macmillan Press.
[19]
American Society of Civil Engineers (1972). Subsurface investigations for design and construction of foundations of buildings J. of Soil Mechss and foundations Div. ASCE Vol. 98, No SM 5 pp 481 -490
[20]
Cassagrane A. 1936. Determination of pre-consolidation load and its practical significance. Proceedings, 1st international conference on Soil Mechanics and foundation Engineering, Cambridge, Mass: Vol. 3, pp 60 – 64.
[21]
British Standards Insititute (1990).Methods for tests for soils for Civil engineering Purposes, BS 1377 (1990).
[22]
Mayne, P.W., and Kemper, J.B. (1988). Profiling OCR in stiff clays by CPT and SPT. Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM Vol. 11, No 2pp 139 – 147.
[23]
Robertson, P.K. and Campanella, R.E. (1983). Interpretation of Cone penetration Tests. Part 1: Clay, CGJ, Vol. 2., No 4. Pp. 718 – 733.
[24]
Tomlinson, M.J. (1999). Foundation design and construction: 6th edn. Longman. 536pp.
[25]
Sanglerat, G. (1972). The penetrometer and soil exploration. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam.
[26]
Meyerhof, G. (1956). Penetration test and bearing capacity of cohesionless soils. J. of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Div., ASCE, Vol. 82, SM 1.
[27]
American Society for Testing of Materials (1997). Annual book of ASTM standards, Vol. 04.08, Conshoshocken, Pa.
[28]
Taylor, D.W. (1948).Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics: New York: John Wiley and Sons..
[29]
Cassagrande, A. (1948). Classification and identification of soils. Transactions, ASCE, Vol. 113, pp. 901 - 991
[30]
Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R. B. (1948). Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. New York: John Wiley and Sons INC.
[31]
Boussinesq, J. (1885). Application des potentials a’ L’Etude de L’Equilibre et du Mouvement des Solides Elastiques, Gauthier-Villas, Paris.
[32]
Griffiths, D.V. (1984). A chart for estimating the average vertical stress increase in elastic foundation below a uniformly loaded rectangular area. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4, 710 – 713.
[33]
Chen, F. H. (1988). Foundations on expansive soils. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Company.
[34]
Holz, W. G. and Gibbs, H. J. (1956). The engineering properties of expansive clays. Transactions, ASCE, 121.
[35]
Nagaraj, TS and Murthy, S. (1985). Prediction of pre-consolidation pressure and re- compression index of soils. Geotech, Testing Journal, ASTM Vol. 8.
[36]
Skempton, AW and Northey, RD (1953). Sensitivity of clays. Geotechnique, Vol. 3, London..
[37]
Seed, H. B., Woodward, R. J., and Lundgreen, R. (1964). Fundamental aspects of the Atterberg Limits. J. of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Div., ASCE, Vol. 90, No. SM 6, pp. 75 – 105.
[38]
Nayak, N. V. and Christensen, R. W. (1971). Swelling characteristics of compacted soils. Clay and Clay Minerals, Vol. 19, 251 - 261.
[39]
Price, G. and Wardle, I.F. (1982). A Comparison between Cone Penetration Test Results and the Performance of Small Diameter Instrumented Piles in Stiff Clay, Proceedings, the 2nd European Symposium on Penetration Testing, Amsterdam, Vol. 2, pp. 775-780.
[40]
British Standards Institute (1999) Code of practice for site investigations. BS 5930 (1999).
Browse journals by subject