Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2020, Page: 72-83
Disaster Resilient Construction of Water Spouts in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal
Rajesh Shrestha, Department of Disaster Risk Engineering and Management, Lumbini International Academy of Science and Technology, Lalitpur, Nepal
Khet Raj Dahal, Department of Disaster Risk Engineering and Management, Lumbini International Academy of Science and Technology, Lalitpur, Nepal
Received: Jul. 18, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 11, 2020;       Published: Aug. 18, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jccee.20200504.12      View  114      Downloads  59
Abstract
The Kathmandu valley was formed by draining the lake through Bagmati River of the Chobar gorge in the ancient time. The bedrock inside the surface of Kathmandu valley consists of clay sediment i.e Kalimati (It means the black soil in Nepali) clay which is also called the dense impenetrable black mud. This type of soil is very fertile. The people of the valley utilized the geographic structure and the natural resources with skill to enhance civilization, which is shown from the traditional water supply or the hiti (Dhunge Dhara in Nepali) system. It is also called the water spout or rainspout. This study was conducted during the period from January to June 2020. Published literature such as paper, manuals, reports, and database were collected from different sources and went on thoroughly. The study found that the population of Kathmandu and Lalitpur is increasing rapidly but the source of drinking water is decreasing gradually. In the past, Dhunge Dhara was feeding the communities for drinking water as there are all together 237 Dhunge Dhara in Kathmandu and Lalitpur area. In the Kathmandu Valley, the source of water spouts decline is due to the development of various engineering infrastructures such as roads, buildings, towers, and so on. Similarly, rapid growth of urbanization took place near the source of water spouts. As a result, there could not be the chance of ground water recharge. The water from the rainfall flows directly through the waste pipe to the river. In the past, there were irrigation canals called Rajkulo (Canal made by the King in the Kathmandu Valley), these canals effectively recharged the ground water. As the valley is converted into the city of concrete, it causes stoppage of ground water recharge near the hiti. Consequently, there is no water in the water spouts i.e. in Dhunge Dhara. The study would like to suggest that the traditional Dhunge Dhara in the valley must be preserved through the initiation of the local, provincial and central government.
Keywords
Dhunge Dhara, Rajkulo, Ground Water Recharge, Water Law and Policies
To cite this article
Rajesh Shrestha, Khet Raj Dahal, Disaster Resilient Construction of Water Spouts in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2020, pp. 72-83. doi: 10.11648/j.jccee.20200504.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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