Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering

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Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on Compaction and Consistency of Some Clay Soils from Parts of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Received: 8 January 2024    Accepted: 29 January 2024    Published: 20 February 2024
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Abstract

Bayelsa state is the southernmost part of the crude oil prolific Niger Delta region of Nigeria where oil exploration and exploitation activities have resulted to the pollution of its land, water, and air. Most parts of the area have experienced crude oil contamination of one form or the other, and the effects on man and the ecosystem are wide ranging. This study has examined the effect of oil contamination on the compaction behaviour of two clay samples obtained at shallow foundation depths in Yenagoa. The two clay samples, A and B are classified according to the unified soil classification system (USCS) as high plasticity inorganic sandy fat clay, and sandy lean clay, respectively. 4, 8, and 12 % crude oil by mass of dry soil were used to mix with the soil samples and left to cure in plastic bags for 48 hours before testing. In sample B, liquid limit (LL) was found to increase by about 9% for all proportions of crude oil while plastic limit (PL) was increased by 13%, 15%, and 27% for 4, 8, and 12 % oil content, respectively. These increase in LL and PL also brought about an increase in plasticity index except for 12% crude oil treatment. However, in all, a low plastic soil was changed to a slightly high plastic one as plotted on the Casagrande chart. The maximum dry density (MDD) of the two samples was also reduced by oil contamination with an increasing oil content exacerbating the reduction of MDD. It is therefore, recommended that care be taken during construction when dealing with clay soils within a potential crude oil contaminated region.

DOI 10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13
Published in Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering (Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2024)
Page(s) 27-32
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Crude Oil, Contamination, Compaction, Maximum Dry Density

References
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[2] Alva, U. R., Fritt-Rasmussen, J. and Jomaas, G., 2020. Experimental study of thickening effectiveness of two herders for in-situ burning of crude oils on water. Cold Regions Science and Technology, p. 103083.
[3] Ambituuni, A., Amezaga, J., &Emeseh, E. (2014). Analysis of safety and environmental regulations for downstream petroleum industry operations in Nigeria: Problems and prospects. Environmental Development, 9, 43-60.
[4] ASTM (2007) ASTM D422–63 2007) e2, standard test method for particle-size analysis of soils. ASTM, West Conshohocken.
[5] American society for testing and materials (2011). Annual book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.08, West Conshohocken, PA.
[6] Ayub, S. O. H. A. I. L., Siddiqui, A. A., & Hussein, H. M. (2017). Impact of geotechnical properties due to industrial and hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Poll Res, 36(4), 814-821.
[7] Bhaskaran, P. E., Chennippan, M. and Subramaniam, T., 2020. Future prediction &estimation of faults occurrences in oil pipelines by using data clustering with time series forecasting. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 66, p. 104203.
[8] British Standard Institution, Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes, BS 1377–1990: Parts 1, 2 and 4; 1990.
[9] Das, B. M., & Sivakugan, N. (2018). Principles of foundation engineering, 9th edition. Cengage learning. Boston.
[10] Das BM (2015) Principles of foundation engineering, 8th edition. Cengage Learning, Boston.
[11] Davies, O. A., & Abolude, D. S. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) of surface water from Oburun Lake, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Applied Science Reports, 13(1).
[12] Elisha, A. T. 2012. Effect of crude oil contamination on the geotechnical properties of soft clay soils of Niger delta region of Nigeria. Elec. J. Geotech. Eng. 1929–1938.
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[15] Ijimdiya TS (2013) The effects of oil contamination on the consolidation properties of lateritic. Soil Dev Appl Ocean Eng (DAOE) 2: 53–59.
[16] Ite, A. E., Ibok, U. J., Ite, M. U., & Petters, S. W. (2013). Petroleum exploration and production: Past and present environmental issues in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 1(4), 78-90.
[17] Karkush, M. O., & Kareem, Z. A. (2017). Investigation of the impacts of fuel oil on the geotechnical properties of cohesive soil. Engineering Journal, 21(4), 127-137.
[18] Nganje, T. N., Hursthouse, A. S., Edet, A., Stirling, D., &Adamu, C. I. (2017). Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater in the shale bedrock, Cross River Basin and Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Applied Water Science, 7(2), 961-985.
[19] Nwilo, P. C., & Badejo, O. T. (2006). Impacts and management of oil spill pollution along the Nigerian coastal areas. Administering Marine Spaces: International Issues, 119, 1-15.
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    Oborie, E., Opukumo, A. W. (2024). Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on Compaction and Consistency of Some Clay Soils from Parts of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, 9(1), 27-32. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13

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    ACS Style

    Oborie, E.; Opukumo, A. W. Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on Compaction and Consistency of Some Clay Soils from Parts of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. J. Civ. Constr. Environ. Eng. 2024, 9(1), 27-32. doi: 10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13

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    AMA Style

    Oborie E, Opukumo AW. Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on Compaction and Consistency of Some Clay Soils from Parts of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. J Civ Constr Environ Eng. 2024;9(1):27-32. doi: 10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13

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  • @article{10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13,
      author = {Ebiegberi Oborie and Alfred Wilson Opukumo},
      title = {Effect of Crude Oil Contamination on Compaction and Consistency of Some Clay Soils from Parts of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria},
      journal = {Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-32},
      doi = {10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.jccee.20240901.13},
      abstract = {Bayelsa state is the southernmost part of the crude oil prolific Niger Delta region of Nigeria where oil exploration and exploitation activities have resulted to the pollution of its land, water, and air. Most parts of the area have experienced crude oil contamination of one form or the other, and the effects on man and the ecosystem are wide ranging. This study has examined the effect of oil contamination on the compaction behaviour of two clay samples obtained at shallow foundation depths in Yenagoa. The two clay samples, A and B are classified according to the unified soil classification system (USCS) as high plasticity inorganic sandy fat clay, and sandy lean clay, respectively. 4, 8, and 12 % crude oil by mass of dry soil were used to mix with the soil samples and left to cure in plastic bags for 48 hours before testing. In sample B, liquid limit (LL) was found to increase by about 9% for all proportions of crude oil while plastic limit (PL) was increased by 13%, 15%, and 27% for 4, 8, and 12 % oil content, respectively. These increase in LL and PL also brought about an increase in plasticity index except for 12% crude oil treatment. However, in all, a low plastic soil was changed to a slightly high plastic one as plotted on the Casagrande chart. The maximum dry density (MDD) of the two samples was also reduced by oil contamination with an increasing oil content exacerbating the reduction of MDD. It is therefore, recommended that care be taken during construction when dealing with clay soils within a potential crude oil contaminated region.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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    AU  - Ebiegberi Oborie
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    T2  - Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering
    JF  - Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering
    JO  - Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering
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    PB  - Science Publishing Group
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    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jccee.20240901.13
    AB  - Bayelsa state is the southernmost part of the crude oil prolific Niger Delta region of Nigeria where oil exploration and exploitation activities have resulted to the pollution of its land, water, and air. Most parts of the area have experienced crude oil contamination of one form or the other, and the effects on man and the ecosystem are wide ranging. This study has examined the effect of oil contamination on the compaction behaviour of two clay samples obtained at shallow foundation depths in Yenagoa. The two clay samples, A and B are classified according to the unified soil classification system (USCS) as high plasticity inorganic sandy fat clay, and sandy lean clay, respectively. 4, 8, and 12 % crude oil by mass of dry soil were used to mix with the soil samples and left to cure in plastic bags for 48 hours before testing. In sample B, liquid limit (LL) was found to increase by about 9% for all proportions of crude oil while plastic limit (PL) was increased by 13%, 15%, and 27% for 4, 8, and 12 % oil content, respectively. These increase in LL and PL also brought about an increase in plasticity index except for 12% crude oil treatment. However, in all, a low plastic soil was changed to a slightly high plastic one as plotted on the Casagrande chart. The maximum dry density (MDD) of the two samples was also reduced by oil contamination with an increasing oil content exacerbating the reduction of MDD. It is therefore, recommended that care be taken during construction when dealing with clay soils within a potential crude oil contaminated region.
    
    VL  - 9
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Author Information
  • Department of Geology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria

  • Department of Geology, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria

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